By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
Color quenchers are materials that reduce the light transmission through the sample and thus lessen the probability of transfer of photons to the cathode of the phototube. Obviously, there are compounds that are both color and chemical quenchers. An excellent review of the use of liquid scintillators in radionuclide metrology has been given by Vatin (1980) in BIPM Monograph No. 3 (1980), in which monograph references to just over 300 publications in the field are listed. 1 Gas-Scintillation Counters.
2). In the case of length-compensated internal gas counters, used for the assay of radioactive nuclides in the gaseous form, a plot of the difference in the count rates, at the same voltage, for two cylindrical counters, 32 1 2. 6). 1 Introduction It has long been known that many substances emit visible light when exposed to nuclear radiation, and this was the basis of Sir William Crookes' spinthariscope which utilized a ZnS screen to permit the observation of single alpha particles emitted in the decay of natural radioactivity.
Table 5 shows solvent scintillation efficiencies relative to that of toluene. It is evident that all good solvents have an aromatic structure. Dioxane is included in the table because of its significance as a solvent for water and aqueous solutions. Dioxane alone has a low relative scintillation efficiency, but with the addition of naphthalene the efficiency becomes comparable with that of benzene. Many scintillation liquids contain an additional component generally referred to as a secondary solute, or secondary scintillator.