By Elizabeth Endicott
An illustrated background of the pastoral nomadic lifestyle in Mongolia, this e-book examines the various demanding situations that Mongolian herders proceed to stand within the fight over ordinary assets within the post-socialist loose industry period.
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Additional resources for A History of Land Use in Mongolia: The Thirteenth Century to the Present
There was even a steady, if not large-scale, flow of Mongols from the steppes into Ming China through the mid-fifteenth century. 21 The first decades of the fifteenth century saw large-scale Chinese military incursions deep into the Mongolian homeland. In Mongolia, the constant need for military manpower depleted labor needed for herding livestock; when battles occurred within Mongolia itself, pastures were destroyed and nomadic migration routes were disrupted. Even after such major Chinese invasions into Mongolia ended, a fragile and easily shattered balance of military power between the Ming Dynasty and the Mongols to the north ensued.
For the foreseeable future, mining and herding will continue to overlap geographically across the Mongolian landscape. Difficult choices loom in the environmental, economic, and cultural spheres. The nutritious natural forage of the Gobi traditionally has supported all of Mongolia’s so-called five animals (tabun khoshighun mal )—sheep, goats, camel, horses, and cows (a category that includes yaks and khainag or yak-cow hybrids). Cows, however, have been and continue to be the least numerous of the five animals on account of the difficulty they encounter grazing in the short and sparse Gobi grasses.
Simukov, writing about the Central Khangai in 1929, observed that among the reasons for removal from one pasture to another in the summer months was garbage accumulation. 40 Simukov was neither the first nor the last observer to find 38 A History of Land Use in Mongolia biting insects a problem both for the livestock and for the herders themselves. Herders in summertime will typically look for pasture that is near water—rivers and lakes—but, of course, a variety of insects such as mosquitoes also camp out near water, making life virtually unbearable for animal and human alike.