Download A History of Philosophy [Vol VII] : modern philosophy : from by Frederick Copleston PDF

By Frederick Copleston

Conceived initially as a significant presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A historical past Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest function of its writer to common acclaim because the top heritage of philosophy in English.

Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of enormous erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the life of God and the potential of metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient diet of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers was once reduced to simplistic caricatures. Copleston set out to redress the incorrect via writing a whole background of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and intellectual pleasure -- and one who offers full place to every philosopher, offering his notion in a beautifully rounded demeanour and displaying his links to those that went prior to and to people who came after him.

The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a background of philosophy that's not going ever to be exceeded. Thought journal summed up the overall contract between students and scholars alike whilst it reviewed Copleston's A historical past of Philosophy as "broad-minded and goal, complete and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we won't suggest [it] too highly."

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Extra info for A History of Philosophy [Vol VII] : modern philosophy : from the post-Kantian idealists to Marx, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche

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At the same time the formal axiom of opposition is said to be grounded in the second proposition of philosophy which affirms the ego's oppositing to itself of the nonego in general. Again, the logical proposition which Fichte calls the axiom of the ground or of sufficient reason, A in part = -A, and 1 We have noted Fiehte's frank admission that no purely theoretical deduction of the second basic proposition is possible. 1 ~, I, p. 95; M, I, p. 289. 49 50 POST-KANTIAN IDEALIST SYSTEMS conversely, is said to be grounded in the third basic proposition of philosophy, in the sense that the former is derived by abstracting definite content from the latter and substituting variables instead.

524. 1 There are activities in man, the circulation of the blood for example, of which he is not immediately, but only mediately, conscious. And he cannot be said to control them. But when I am immediately conscious of an impulse or desire, I am free, Fichte takes it, to satisfy or not to satisfy it. me time they must be determined by the ego itself and express its freedom rather than subjection to the natural world. This means in effect that the actions should be performed for the sake of performing them.

We may add that in his deduction of the fundamental propositions of philosophy Fichte begins to deduce the categories. In his opinion Kant's deduction was insufficiently systematic. If, however, we start with the self-positing of the ego, we can deduce them successively in the course of the reconstruction of consciousness. Thus the first basic proposition gives us the category of reality. For 'that which is posited through the mere positing of a thing ... is its reality, its essence [Wesen]' ,I The second proposition obviously gives us the category of negation and the third that of limitation or determination.

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