Download AAGBI Core Topics in Anaesthesia 2012 by Ian Johnston, William Harrop-Griffiths, Leslie Gemmell PDF

By Ian Johnston, William Harrop-Griffiths, Leslie Gemmell

Based at the organization of Anesthetists of significant Britain and Ireland's (AAGBI) carrying on with schooling lecture sequence, this clinical-oriented ebook covers the newest advancements in learn and the medical software to anesthesia and soreness control.

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Low-frequency sound waves or seismic waves are transmitted through dense materials such as the earth. Sound waves that are below the audible range are called infrasonic. Sound that is heard has a frequency in the range 20 Hz to 20 kHz. This is called the audible frequency range. s−1. Ultrasound has a frequency above the audible range at 20 kHz. Clinical ultrasound is in the range of 2–15 MHz. This is transmitted well through the soft tissues of the body. Air-filled cavities and solid material such as bone and metal needles will not transmit this frequency of sound, so the lung and intracranial structures cannot be examined, except in babies when ultrasound can be focused through the fontanelles.

Hyperechoic areas are reflecting areas where scatter is increased compared to surrounding tissues, hypoechoic areas are reflecting areas where scatter is low compared to surrounding tissues. These changes in echogenicity lead to images of different levels of brightness that can be used to differentiate between tissues. For instance, the liver normally produces a very homogeneous image. However, a haemangioma within the liver tends to be hyperechoic compared to normal liver. Scatter can also occur with small objects such as needles.

This is made possible with a line or array of transducers in the probe head. The probe is the most delicate part of the device and a typical array contains 128–256 transducer elements in a wide aperture device. There are matrix arrays now on the market with up to 2400 transducer elements. Each transducer has a dual function. It both creates and sends out a short burst of ultrasound pressure waves, and is then silent until it detects those waves returning. This is referred to as pulsed ultrasound.

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