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By Denis Howe

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When this is so the value usually represents a special condition conveniently covered by means of an ultimate factor rather than implying a higher order of safety. One such example is the emergency alighting case where only ultimate conditions are relevant. 1 Introduction The application of proof and ultimate factors covers the limit load condition of a particular case but by itself is only adequate for a short-life vehicle. Other measures are necessary to safeguard the integrity of the structure when it is subjected to numerous repetitions of loads over the life of the vehicle.

T o attempt to do so would produce an unacceptably heavy design and it would be prohibitively expensive. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an airworthiness standard for normal design and operational purposes, although the possibility of a lower standard. which nevertheless confers a safe 'get home' capability. can be considered in respect of the design of the structure and the associated systems. Past experience has a major influence upon the setting of the airworthiness target. 2 Civil aircraft In the context of civil operations it has been observed that the media and fare-paying public react adversely when catastrophic accidents occur, especially if there are several in close sequence.

This includes such details as the type and extent of the high-lift devices and the sizes and locations of the aerodynamic surfaces used to confer the required stability and control. Indeed an important aspect of the conceptual design process is the determination of satisfactory stability and control characteristics whether the aircraft is designed to be naturally or artificially stable. To do this it is necessary to evaluate the aerodynamic derivatives for the defined configuration of the aircraft.

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