By Martin G. St. John Sutton, Alan R. Maniet, Jerry Blaivas, David A. McGowan, David Gordon, Stuart Stanton
Clinically proper emphasis right here presents the reader with an authoritative assessment of what strategies can be found and what photographs could be bought. The multiplane probe, paediatric and 3D probes, and colour movement Doppler are incorporated.
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Extra info for An Atlas of Multiplane Transesophageal Echocardiography
The sector or ultrasound beam at this point is at 0°. When the transducer array is rotated to 90° with the switch on the control handle, the ultrasound beam orientation and sector is parallel to the shaft of the probe and gives a longitudinal or sagittal plane of the heart. All of the available echocardiographic instruments have a specific icon on the display, which orients the operator to the degree of rotation of the transducer position The operator must be extremely familiar with the viewing screen of the particular echocardiographic instrument used, in order to recognize readily the proper image orientation.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1980;79:338–48. 20. Hsu Y-H, Santulli T Jr, Wong A-L, et al. Impact of intraoperative echocardiography or surgical management of congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol 1991;67:1279–83. 21. Weintraub R, Shiota T, Elkadi T, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Circulation 1992;86:711–22. 22. Ritter SB, Thys D. Pediatric transesophageal color flow imaging: smaller probes for smaller hearts. Echocardiography 1989;6:431–40.
With their tongue, the tip of the transducer usually enters one of the piriform fossae, which lie lateral to the upper esophageal sphincter. If the operator can not pass the probe beyond 15–20 cm before resistance is encountered, and the patient complains of pressure or pain in the neck region, the probe should be withdrawn immediately and redirected toward the midline. Failure to do so can result in rupture of the upper esophagus, which is the most common site of endoscopic perforation. Occasionally, smaller transducers can pass into the trachea, when resistance is encountered and the patient develops intractable coughing.