By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan
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Other fortis sounds include /t/ and /k/. Other Lenis sounds include /d/ and /g/. In English, the fortis/lenis distinction happens to duplicate the voiced/voiceless one found in minimal pairs. So all the voiced sounds are lenis and all the voiceless sounds are fortis sounds. 9. LIP ROPUNDING Another important form of air modification in which the lips are involved is lip rounding. In the production of some vowels, the glide /w/, and the retroflex /r/, the lips are rounded so that their shape becomes circular.
It should be noted that a plosive cannot be prolonged or maintained so that once the air has been released, the sound has escaped. As such, plosive sounds lack the length feature. Contrast this quality of plosives with a fricative in which you can lengthen the sound. The plosive sounds in RP are: /b/, /p/, /t/, /d/, /k/, and /g/. As it was mentioned earlier, plosive sounds belong to a more general class of sounds called stops. A stop sound is one in which the flow of air is completely blocked only in the oral cavity.
This makes the cords vibrate, producing a voiced sound. Vocal cord vibration is technically referred to as voicing. In English, only a limited number of consonants are voiceless. /ʧ/, /s/, /p/, /k/, /f/, /ʃ/, /t/, /θ/, and /h/ are voiceless. All other phonemes are voiced. CLOSED GLOTTIS OPEN GLOTTIS Adjustments of the larynx for phonation (Reprinted—with some modifications—from Lieberman and Blumstein, 1988, P. 111) To feel the distinction between voiced and voiceless sounds is very easy. Place your finger and thumb lightly on your throat.