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By Helmut Buschmann; Gregor Bahrenberg; et al

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Extra resources for Analgesics : from chemistry and pharmacology to clinical application

Sample text

Diclofenac Is used mainly as the sodium salt orally or parenterally (75-150 mg/day) and as an ophthalmic solution. Topical formulations may contain the dJethylammonium or epolamine salt. Diclofenac is combined with misoprostol to reduce gastrointestinal effects, which are the main side-effects. , 1999): The diazotation of 2,4-difluoroanaline with isoamyl nitrite and condensation with anisole gives 4-(2,4difluorophenyl)anisole, which is hydrolyzed with HI in refluxing acetic acid yielding 4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)phenol.

1980) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea. It is used as base or lysine- or arginine-salt for oral or parenteral application. Diflunisal shows weak inhibition of both, COX-1 and COX2 in a whole blood assay. Peak plasma concentrations are reached within 2 to 3 h after oral dosing. Diflunisal is heavily bound to plasma protein (>99 %), has a long elimination half-life (8-12 h) and non-linear kinetics.

For optimal activity, one aromatic ring must be substituted with a methylsulfonyl or a sulfonamide substituent in the para position. Substitution at position 4 of one of the aromatic systems with a sulfonamide or a methylsulfonyl group Is essential for COX Inhibition. Replacement of the methylsulfonyl group by a sulfonamide group reduces COX-2 selectivity but improves oral bioavailability. g. pyrrole, thiazole, °xaz°'e. furane, furanone, imidazole, isoxazole, pyrimidine, thiophene, pyrazole, cyclopentenone O — S-NH2 6 R ~S-CH3 • 6 Scheme 3: General structure of carbocycles and heterocycles with vicinal aryl substituents.

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