By Marjorie C. Malley
This can be the tale of a brand new technological know-how. starting with an vague discovery in 1896, radioactivity led researchers on a quest for knowing that eventually faced the intersection of data and secret. Mysterious from the beginning, radioactivity attracted researchers who struggled to appreciate it. What prompted sure atoms to provide off invisible, penetrating rays? the place did the power come from? those questions turned more and more urgent whilst researchers learned the method appeared to proceed indefinitely, generating large amounts of power. Investigators chanced on situations the place radioactivity did switch, forcing them to the startling end that radioactive our bodies have been transmuting into different components. Chemical components weren't immutable in any case. Radioactivity produced strains of topic so minuscule and evanescent that researchers needed to devise new recommendations and tools to enquire them. Scientists in lots of nations, yet specially in laboratories in Paris, Manchester, and Vienna unraveled the main points of radioactive differences. They created a brand new technology with really expert thoughts, tools, journals, and foreign meetings. ladies entered the sphere in unparalleled numbers. Experiments resulted in progressive principles concerning the atom and speculations approximately atomic power. the thrill spilled over to the general public, who anticipated marvels and miracles from radium, a scarce point came upon completely via its radioactivity. the recent phenomenon enkindled the mind's eye and woke up historical subject matters of literature and fable. marketers created new industries, and physicians devised novel remedies for melanoma. Radioactivity gave archaeologists equipment for courting artifacts and meteorologists a brand new reason for the air's conductivity. Their explorations published a mysterious radiation from house. Radioactivity profoundly replaced technology, politics, and tradition. the sphere produced a variety of Nobel Prize winners, but radioactivity's proficient researchers couldn't clear up the mysteries underlying the hot phenomenon. That used to be left to a brand new new release and a brand new frame of mind approximately truth. now not only a historic account, the publication examines philosophical matters hooked up with radioactivity, and relates its subject matters to broader concerns concerning the nature of technological know-how. Read more... a brand new technological know-how. The beginnings. The environment ; Rays and radiation ; Becquerel's discovery -- The Curies. Maria Skłodowska ; A consequential assembly ; New parts! -- Rutherford, Soddy, debris, and alchemy? Rutherford and the rays ; the place did the power come from? ; fabric rays? Discovery of the beta particle ; Thorium's rays ; Vanishing radioactivity ; Transmutation! ; A neglected discovery ; Reactions ; Atomic strength? ; Tragedy ; extra rays ; The alpha particle -- The radioactive Earth. The prospectors ; How outdated is the earth? ; a brand new estate of topic? -- Speculations. Early theories ; Radioactivity and chance ; Kinetic types of the atom -- Radioactivity and chemistry. the increase of radiochemistry ; Radioactive family tree ; Chemistry of the imponderable ; Inseparable radioelements ; Isotopes ; Displacement legislation ; the top of the strains ; extra isotopes -- contained in the atom. construction blocks ; Bombarding atoms ; The nuclear atom ; The nucleus and the periodic desk ; The gamma rays ; Theories of the nucleus -- Sequel. warfare! ; Radioactivity in the course of global warfare I ; From radioactivity to nuclear and particle physics -- Measuring and utilizing Radioactivity. tools and tools. an important offerings ; Standardizing the measures ; recommendations ; dimension, cash, and machines -- Radioactivity, medication, and lifestyles. disagreeable surprises ; From burns to remedies ; Rays and different organisms ; Miracle therapy? ; Radioactive spas ; risks within the laboratory -- New industries. Early ; hovering call for and new associations ; Paint that glowed in the dead of night ; a brand new poison ; Fission, bombs, and the uranium rush ; Radioactivity and the oil -- past the tale. Radioactivity's major movers. expertise, assets, alterations ; participants ; learn teams ; clinical beliefs and tradition ; Mentors and types ; Age, attitudes, and ambition ; Nationalism -- Radioactivity and undying questions : the search for figuring out. types and theories for radioactivity ; styles in radioactivity's improvement ; Radioactivity and ideas approximately switch ; Radioactivity and ideas approximately subject and effort ; Radioactivity and concepts approximately continuity and discontinuity ; everlasting conundrums -- The imaginitive attraction of a discovery. Mythological and romantic dimensions of radioactivity ; An ongoing job -- word list of rays and radiations -- relatives bushes for radioactive components -- Radioactivity's elusive reason -- Nobel Prize winners integrated during this ebook -- Radioactivity's internet of impression -- Timeline
Read Online or Download Radioactivity : a history of a mysterious science PDF
Best nuclear physics books
This booklet fills the necessity for a coherent paintings combining conscientiously reviewed articles right into a entire evaluation obtainable to investigate teams and academics. subsequent to basic physics, contributions on topical scientific and fabric technological know-how concerns are integrated.
Additional info for Radioactivity : a history of a mysterious science
The term ray, used loosely for a beam of light, expanded during the nineteenth century to include invisible forms of light, after investigators found light-like effects occurring beyond the edges of the visible spectrum. Light beyond the violet edge became known as ultraviolet light (from ultra, meaning “beyond”) and light below the red edge became infrared light (from infra, meaning “below”). The terms ray and radiation were used interchangeably during this period and beyond. Later, a variety of poorly understood electrical, chemical, and photographic effects were att ributed to invisible rays.
The direction of deflection changed when he changed the orientation of the magnet’s poles. The rays must be material. Figure 3-3. Stefan Meyer. Courtesy of the Austrian Central Library for Physics (Österreichische Zentralbibliothek für Physik).
From the Generalstabens Litograficka Anstalt (Sweden), courtesy of the Library of Congress. Back in the museum, Becquerel began testing samples from his father’s collection. He was particularly interested in a luminescent uranium mineral. Named in 1789 after the newly discovered planet Uranus, uranium was a heavy metal found mainly in central European mines. It was used to color ceramics and glass. There had been no sign that anything was special about it. Yet, Becquerel had grounds for focusing on uranium minerals.